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熔模铸造工艺
[作者:aowl] [日期:19-07-20] [浏览次数:] [来源:]

熔模铸造工艺,简单说就是用易熔材料(例如蜡料或塑料)制成可熔性模型(简称熔模或模型),在其上涂覆若干层特制的耐火涂料,经过干燥和硬化形成一个整体型壳后,再用蒸汽或热水从型壳中熔掉模型,然后把型壳置于砂箱中,在其四周填充干砂造型,最后将铸型放入焙烧炉中经过高温焙烧(如采用高强度型壳时,可不必造型而将脱模后的型壳直接焙烧),铸型或型壳经焙烧后,于其中浇注熔融金属而得到铸件。
In investment casting process, the fusibility model is made of fusible material (e.g. wax or plastics), which is coated with some special refractory coatings. After drying and hardening, a whole shell is formed, then the model is melted out from the shell by steam or hot water, and then the shell is placed in the sand box. After filling with dry sand around the mold, the mold is finally put into the calciner and roasted at high temperature (for example, when the high strength shell is used, the mold shell after demoulding can be directly roasted instead of moulding). The castings are obtained by pouring molten metal into the mold or shell after roasting.
熔模铸件尺寸精度较高,一般可达CT4-6(砂型铸造为CT10~13,压铸为CT5~7),当然由于熔模铸造的工艺过程复杂,影响铸件尺寸精度的因素较多,例如模料的收缩•●、熔模的变形•●、型壳在加热和冷却过程中的线量变化•●、合金的收缩率以及在凝固过程中铸件的变形等,所以普通熔模铸件的尺寸精度虽然较高,但其一致性仍需提高(采用中•●、高温蜡料的铸件尺寸一致性要提高很多)。
The dimension accuracy of investment casting is high, generally up to CT4-6 (sand casting is CT10-13, die casting is CT5-7). Of course, due to the complex process of investment casting, there are many factors affecting the dimension accuracy of investment casting, such as shrinkage of die material, deion of investment mould, linear change of shell during heating and cooling, shrinkage rate of alloy and so on. In the solidification process, the deion of castings and so on, so the dimensional accuracy of ordinary investment casting is higher, but its consistency still needs to be improved (the size consistency of castings with medium and high temperature wax is much higher).
压制熔模时,采用型腔表面光洁度高的压型,因此,熔模的表面光洁度也比较高。此外,型壳由耐高温的特殊粘结剂和耐火材料配制成的耐火涂料涂挂在熔模上而制成,与熔融金属直接接触的型腔内表面光洁度高。所以,熔模铸件的表面光洁度比一般铸造件的高,一般可达Ra.1.6~3.2μm。
When pressing the melting die, the high surface finish of the cavity is used, so the surface finish of the melting die is also higher. In addition, the shell is made of a refractory coating made of a special high temperature binder and refractory material, which is coated on the melting die. The inner surface of the cavity directly contacted with the molten metal has a high smoothness. Therefore, the surface finish of investment castings is higher than that of ordinary castings, generally up to Ra.1.6-3.2 um.

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